The last couple of days I’ve indulged myself with a course on the philosophy of morality. This is an online Harvard course dubbed Justice: What’s The Right Thing To Do, brilliantly delivered by Michael Sandel.
Just to get the obvious out of the way – I have never imagined such an engaged class room. Most of the professors in the universities I studied at described teaching as a necessary evil. In our schools teachers tend to dictate the materials and leave no room for discussion (to the extent that I’ve heard of a teacher being fired for trying to engage the students). This course is based honest debate in class. It’s a shame I’ve never experienced such vigorous learning methods in my day (ha! I was lucky. It got worse after I left, or so I hear).
In one of the sessions arose the question of army service. Let me present you with the question raised in class:
The army has discovered it is not able to fill its ranks, and they are falling behind on their recruiting targets. Which of the following methods do you consider more morally just or fair?
- Increase pay and benefits – by offering better work conditions to soldiers, retention will go up.
- Conscription – a draft, selecting out of the able men and women and forcing them to enlist.
- Outsource – hire mercenaries who are willing to work for the existing wages.
Most people voted for Option #1. Did you? Let’s discuss this option a bit further.
The Civil War Method
During the Civil War, the Union used a hybrid system. It was based on conscription, however, if you were selected to enlist and could afford it, you were allowed to hire a substitute to go to war in your stead. What do you think about this system? In modern society, it seems unjust. It dictates, too clearly, that the poor will enlist to protect the rich. Those who have not will risk their lives to protect those who have.
The All Volunteer system, as suggested in option #1, allows anyone who wishes to join the army the option to do so. An All Volunteer army raises an image of patriotism before our eyes and the scent of virtue in our noses. If you look at the statistics, you’ll notice that those who join the army come mostly from specific social-economic backgrounds (and not from the top). For example, now that recession is in place, retention is close to an all time high. Job security becomes number one driver for enlistment.
In fact, if you follow this logic through, the All Volunteer system seems not so different from the mercenary system. People hired by means of money, regardless of their sense of obligation to the country they partake in.
The Israeli Method
Any system has its inefficiencies. In Israel, we have a conscription system where ideally every able man and women would serve two to three years of compulsory service for the country. This system is long in debate, as wars become less frequent and less threatening to the survival of this fairly young country.
First, there’s the economic toll on society. In theory, most of the able minds and bodies in the country donate two to three years to the country. And when I say “donate”, I mean it in the most literal sense. There is almost no pay. There are hardly any benefits. Most do not learn any profession they can use afterwords. And there are more soldiers than there are jobs, so there are grave inefficiencies for the economy as a whole. For many of the youth, these are wasted years, where the alternative would have been in a productive workforce in the market.
Second, nearly half of today’s youth do not serve in the army. For various reasons they are considered unfit. Forcing them to enlist would grossly outweigh the benefits of enlisting them.
These reasons (and some other) convince people that it may be better to move from conscription to the All Volunteer army.
The situation is slightly different if you decide to stay for longer than the compulsory three years. I’ve served in the army for nine years, six of them as an officer. During this time I was surrounded by people who were highly motivated and capable. We believed what we did had direct effects on the safety of the Israeli citizens. This is the one major benefit of the volunteer army. If you chose to be here, you will try harder.
Money is a bad driver of motivation. Most of us were paid 30% under market value, yet many people felt that the job they are doing is both more interesting and more important than the financial rewards of working nine-to-five at any other workplace.
This is why we need to be careful with monetary compensation. It creates a divide between the interests of the employer and the interests of the employee. It pushes people away from creativity and risk taking and into the realm of mediocrity. I’ll talk about this point some other time. In the mean time, you can read this.
Some Partial Conclusion
Returning to the world of business, I want you to consider the methods of motivation and fairness where you work. Joel has mentioned before that he’s against monetary rewards. When you start doing something you love for money, you stop loving it. If you code for money, the project becomes less important than the money. It’s sad, but it’s true. And it is worse where performance is directly linked to pay.
You need people in your company to feel as if they are creating tremendous value. Know they are correcting a wrong. Want to fix the world. You want patriots in your company, not employees.
May this be a Happy, Moral and Advantageous year to us all.
Here’s a link to the first lecture. Also, I’ve embedded here the lecture discussing army conscription.